Partners Portal

AttachmentOrganizationPublication TypeDescriptionYear Issued
CLFI Digital Iponaryo Module
Cebuana Lhuillier Foundation, Inc.
Brigada Pagbasa Catch-Up Programme
World Vision International
Brigada Pagbasa Learning and Training Resources
World Vision International
Financial Literacy
Banco de Oro Foundation, Inc.
Youth In-Country Consultation: Philippines
for ASPBAE 8th General Assembly
E-Net PhilippinesReportASPBAE believes that voices of marginalized youth must be integrated in the discussions of its strategic planning and shaping
future youth work. Therefore, ASPBAE will conduct regional youth
consultation to listen to youth perspectives and to generate ideas
for youth and education. The regional youth consultation will be
held in November, 2020. In line with this, in-country youth
consultations will be held to capture diverse voices and
Philippines Civil Society Spotlight Report on SDG 4 for HLPF 2021E-Net PhilippinesReportE-Net Philippines annually submits Philippine Spotlight Reports to the UN High Level Political Forum on the Sustainable Development Goals. It recently submitted its Spotlight Report to the UNHLPF 2021 held this July thru the Asia South Pacific Association for Basic and Adult Education, where E-Net is an active member at the regional level.2021
Youth-Led Action Research on The Impact of COVID-19 Pandemic on Marginalised YouthE-Net PhilippinesReportThe nationwide lockdowns and the resultant closure of
educational institutions and markets have reportedly
led to a rise in several shadow pandemics: of digital
divides and school dropouts, of unemployment and food
insecurity, of domestic violence and child marriages, of
fake news and social stigma, and of physical disorders
and mental illnesses. Thus, among the most vulnerable,
but also further excluded from the mainstream discourse
and phases of planning during the pandemic, have
been the vulnerable youth, whose everyday lives and
future aspirations have taken a serious hit in the ‘new
normal’. They continue to face significant disruptions and
changes on multiple fronts, at home, their community
and the economy. Yet, as this pandemic continues to
exacerbate, several youth have also been at the forefront
amongst those mobilizing to shape creative forms of
resistance, solidarity, and claim-making, particularly for
social protection and relief assistance.
E-Net Philippines Report YAR COVID Follow-Up Action ProjectE-Net PhilippinesReport“Youth-led Action-oriented Research (YAR) on the Impact of COVID-19 on Marginalized Youth”. They documented twenty-five (25) stories of the marginalized youth as primary data focusing on how they have coped-up with the pandemic. They classified the issues they are facing into economic, health, social, and education aspects and consequently put forward their recommendations regarding these during and beyond lockdown. Completed print and video documentations of the stories and a terminal report were submitted to ASPBAE.2021
Stories of Marginalized Youth (Amid COVID-19)E-Net PhilippinesReportThis anthology emanated from the Youth Action Research (YAR) on the impact of COVID-19 pandemic to the young people. In particular, YAR examined the situation of marginalized youth in most afflicted areas.

Conducted by the youth themselves, the study assessed the impact of the pandemic on the livelihood, education and learning of marginalized youth as well as their recommended response to COVID19 pandemic.
Save Our Future campaign Digital Toolkit (August 10-16)E-Net PhilippinesToolkitIn light of our commitment to global education, E-Net Philippines has joined the Save Our Future campaign.

The Save Our Future campaign officially launched last August 4, and will run until Wednesday, September 30, 2020. We are pleased to share the digital toolkit for use during the first week of the campaign.
Education is a Human RightE-Net PhilippinesInfographicBut barriers prevent children and youth from fully realizing their right to education. It is necessary to find out who these children are and why they are not attending school.

No one should be left behind in education!
Education is a Human Right (2nd) E-Net PhilippinesInfographicBut barriers prevent children and youth from fully realizing their right to education. It is necessary to find out who these children are and why they are not attending school.

No one should be left behind in education!
NEWSLETTER: Education Out Loud Asia-Pacific Regional Management UnitE-Net PhilippinesNewsletterE-Net is featured on the First Edition of the Newsletter from the Education Out Loud Asia-Pacific Regional Management Unit

Education Out Loud (EOL) is Global Partnership for Education’s fund for advocacy and social accountability, that supports civil society to be active and influential in shaping education policy to better meet the needs of communities, especially of vulnerable and marginalized populations.

E-Net highlighted the issue of access to quality equitable education is more challenging now and even after the lockdown because of the “new normal” lifestyle. How could marginalized learners adapt into this high technology learning? How would they practice handwashing if there’s water shortage in schools and houses? How would the practice of social distancing be observed when a class is composed of 60 students due to inadequate classrooms? Would these learning modes lessen or increase their workload of teachers?

E-Net is pushing for a responsive national and local education and health system, appropriate financing for disasters of this type and magnitude, comprehensive school safety and safe learning community.
The PH SDG Agenda: Closing Gaps, Overcoming Policy IncoherenceE-Net PhilippinesSpotlight ReportE-Net Philippines contributed in the writing of this volume of Social Watch’s Spotlight Report on Sustainable Development Goals. The article on education pointedly asked the question “(W)ill equity in education be finally achieved?”2019
Civil Society Spotlight Report on the SDG4 Implementation Status in the PhilippinesE-Net PhilippinesSpotlight ReportE-Net Philippines produced a Spotlight Report to present the perspectives of civil society and the marginalised sectors on SDG 4. The report also aims to contribute and feed into the Philippine VNR. This civil society analytical paper on the SDG 4 implementation status in the country was developed through desk review and numerous consultations among coalition members and partners. The report was endorsed by the National Advocacy Council and the National Executive Board of E-Net Philippines.2019
ALS for Lifelong LearningE-Net PhilippinesPolicy BriefAlternative Learning System (ALS) for the Marginalized, Excluded and Vulnerable Sectors (MEVs)

Out-of-School Children and Youth (OSCY) refers to 7 to 14 years old and not enrolled in any formal or vocational school and 15-24 years old and not enrolled in any formal or vocational school, not formally employed, and not a tertiary level graduate. The Philippines ranks high as one of the countries with a sizable number of OSCY. In a co-publication of the International Labor Organization (ILO) and the Asian Development Bank (ADB) released in 2014, the Philippines ranked the highest in number in 2012 among 8 ASEAN countries. Even higher than that of Indonesia with a population double than the Philippines.

The Out-of-School phenomenon reflects the over-all socio-economic situation of the country including poverty, regional inequalities, rapid population growth rate, sluggish economic growth and low absorption of the labor force. According to the National Youth Commission (NYC).
A CRPD-Compliant Inclusive EducationE-Net PhilippinesPolicy BriefDisability prevalence is increasing globally, especially in low income countries. In 2017, there is an estimated 7.5 billion people with disabilities or 1 in every 7 people. According to the World Report on Disability, 1 in 10 persons with disabilities are children (0-14 years) and 80% are living in developing countries. Among marginalized groups, children with disabilities remain the most excluded and discriminated. They are less likely to attend school, access medical services, or have their voices heard in society. Their disabilities also place them at a higher risk of physical abuse, and often exclude them from receiving proper nutrition or humanitarian assistance in emergencies. Girls with disabilities face a double disadvantage because they are also constrained by traditional gender roles and cultural barriers.2018
Risk Reduction and Resiliency in EducationE-Net PhilippinesPolicy BriefRestoring Access and Ensuring Quality, Inclusive, Equitable and Safe Learning Environment for Disaster-Prone Schools in the Visayas

The Philippines is among the world’s most disaster-prone country because of its location along the path of typhoons and monsoons and being in the Pacific Ring of Fire. It was fourth in the world among countries hit by the highest number of disasters over the past 20 years, according to the United Nations Office for Disaster Risk Reduction. In the country, the Visayas, especially areas in Eastern Visayas are the areas highly at risk to the occurrence of tropical depressions, tropical storms, typhoons and super typhoons according to the Center for Environmental Geomatics’ Mapping Philippine Vulnerability to Environmental Disasters.
The Magna Carta for Public School Teachers Status of Implementation After 50 YearsE-Net PhilippinesPolicy BriefIf there is one education law in the country the provisions of which were written by its intended direct beneficiaries themselves, it is RA 4670 or the Magna Carta for Public School Teachers. Then Senator Jovito Salonga proudly admitted having the singular honor of giving it a name, coordinated the entire technical work in his office and stood as its principal sponsor and champion at the Senate. Both Houses of Congress passed it into law on May 19, 1966. Then President Ferdinand Marcos signed the newly enacted law on June 18, 19662018
Ensuring Inclusive and Equitable Quality Education for Muslim LearnersE-Net PhilippinesPolicy BriefEnsuring Inclusive and Equitable Quality Education for Muslim Learners Policy and Reform Recommendations for Madrasah Education

Mindanao island is endowed with vast natural resources with an estimated half of the country’s mineral wealth. Ironically, poverty incidence in Mindanao is the highest among islands at 33.8% and eight of the top ten poorest provinces are in its regions. (Philippine Statistics Authority 2015 Report on Poverty Incidence, March 2016) Major contributing factors to the people’s impoverishment are 1) situations of conflict due to insurgency and cultural factors; 2) geographical disadvantages and socio-cultural isolation of highland and small island populations; and 3) limited opportunities for productive activities and limited access to social services due to prolonged government neglect.
TAYO NA! TAMANG BOTO 2022E-Net PhilippinesWebinarThe Legal Network for Truthful Elections ("LENTE") and Civil Society Network for Education Reforms ("E-Net Philippines") would like to invite you to a webinar focusing on youth political participation entitled, "Tayo Na! Tamang Boto 2022" on Thursday, June 17, 2021 at 1:00PM-3:00PM.
This two-hour webinar aims:
1) To increase the number of youth organizations and other civil society organizations participating in election-related advocacy, education, monitoring and reforms by providing insights on the opportunities for engagement around the electoral cycle; and
2) To capacitate the youth and to strengthen their political participation.
𝗦𝗲𝘅𝘂𝗮𝗹 𝗢𝗿𝗶𝗲𝗻𝘁𝗮𝘁𝗶𝗼𝗻, 𝗚𝗲𝗻𝗱𝗲𝗿 𝗜𝗱𝗲𝗻𝘁𝗶𝘁𝘆, 𝗮𝗻𝗱 𝗘𝘅𝗽𝗿𝗲𝘀𝘀𝗶𝗼𝗻 (𝗦𝗢𝗚𝗜𝗘) 𝗪𝗲𝗯𝗶𝗻𝗮𝗿E-Net PhilippinesWebinarE-Net Philippines aims to strengthen gender-fair education strategies beyond parity in access and aims for full gender equality. Gender issues are incorporated in all policy discussions around early childhood care and development, formal and non-formal education, education for sustainable development and lifelong learning, and education governance and financing.2021
𝗥𝗲𝘀𝗲𝗮𝗿𝗰𝗵 𝗙𝗼𝗿𝘂𝗺 𝗼𝗻 “𝗚𝗲𝗻𝗱𝗲𝗿 𝗘𝗾𝘂𝗮𝗹𝗶𝘁𝘆 𝗶𝗻 𝗘𝗱𝘂𝗰𝗮𝘁𝗶𝗼𝗻”E-Net PhilippinesWebinarE-Net Philippines aims to strengthen gender-fair education strategies beyond parity in access and aims for full gender equality. Gender issues are incorporated in all policy discussions around early childhood care and development, formal and non-formal education, education for sustainable development and lifelong learning, and education governance and financing.2021
DAY 1: Research Forum on K-12 Research AgendaE-Net PhilippinesWebinarThe Civil Society Network for Education Reforms (E-Net Philippines) is a national education coalition of 130 civil society organizations and partners engaged in policy advocacy and partnerships for Philippine education reforms in the light of the global call on Education 2030/Sustainable Development Goals in which our government made a commitment to fulfill. To substantiate our advocacy work, we are conducting education-related researches that will be subject to a TWO-DAY RESEARCH FORUM.

DAY 1 March 3, 2021
Desk Review Report
A Review in the K-12 Research Agenda

DAY 2 March 4, 2021
A Review in the Indigenous Peoples Education (IPEd)

The Polytechnic University of the Philippines will take part in the critiquing of our researches and provide recommendations on areas for improvement in advancing the policy engagements. The initial critiques and recommendations on the researches including the desk review will be presented LIVE! Representatives of E-Net members and partners coming from Luzon, Visayas, Mindanao including BARMM, and NCR will attend this forum.
Advancing Indigenous Peoples Right to a Sustainable, Quality, and Culture-based EducationE-Net PhilippinesWebinarAmid all the well-intent policies, the government’s political will to ensure access to culture-based education for all indigenous peoples remains to be seen.
Education policies and curricula are still rarely developed with IP participation or consent and as a result have mostly failed to provide quality education that is aligned with their rights as indigenous peoples: education that is well-resourced, culturally sensitive, aligned with their learning needs, languages, priorities and aspirations, and delivered through culturally appropriate teaching strategies, and in culturally appropriate settings.
In commemoration of the National Indigenous Peoples Month this October, E-Net in partnership with ChildFund conducted a Webinar on Indigenous Peoples Education. It served as an opportunity to raise awareness and promote action for advancing Indigenous Peoples’ rights especially the right to education.
Pagpupugay at Pasasalamat sa mga Dakilang GuroE-Net PhilippinesWebinarLIVE! Pagpupugay at Pasasalamat sa mga Dakilang Guro. Samahan ninyo kami sa saliw ng mga awit, tula at mensahe!
Para sa mga Gurong patuloy na humuhubog at nagpapanday sa ating mga mag-aaral para sa pagbubuo ng lipunang may pagpapahalaga sa Karapatang Pantao, Karunungang Panlipunan at Dignidad ng Sangkatauhan.
Sa paggunita ng “World Teachers’ Day”, inaanyayahan namin kayo para sa isang natatanging Pagpupugay at Pasasalamat sa ating mga Dakilang Guro ng Bayan.
Ang mga Gurong patuloy na humuhubog at nagpapanday sa ating mga mag-aaral para sa pagbubuo ng lipunang may pagpapahalaga sa Karapatang Pantao, Karunungang Panlipunan at Dignidad ng Sangkatauhan.
FILIPINO TEACHERS’ PRESS CONFERENCE ON WORLD TEACHERS’ DAYE-Net PhilippinesWebinarEven before the pandemic, teachers are working much more than what is in the Magna Carta for Public School Teachers law. And while this situation has already taken its toll on many in the teaching workforce, their condition is further degraded by the lack of support to protect and safeguard their economic well-being such as budgets to ensure that salaries and benefits mandated by law are provided them. Support will be needed much more in this pandemic time.
On the occasion of the World Teachers’ Day, October 5, E-Net Philippines’ member teachers’ federations/unions/associations/groups will hold a Press Conference to air their concerns and demands as schools open amid the pandemic. Our outcry and call “Sobra sa (work)load, Kulang sa pang(data) load!”; “Reduce Teachers’ Workload, Safeguard Teacher’s Well-being!” is in line with teachers’ continuing campaign to improve teachers’ working and living conditions, protecting teachers’ rights and upholding their professional status and E-Net’s advocacy to achieve quality public education for all where teachers play a crucial role.
"Sa Pagbabalik-Eskwela, Walang Dapat Maiwan, Walang Maisasantabi!" A Multi-Stakeholders Online Press Conference on the Opening of Classes.E-Net PhilippinesWebinarThis Press Conference aims to surface the situation of the marginalized, excluded and vulnerable sectors (MEVS) in terms of education – “Kaming mga napag-iiwanan at laging naisasantabi sa edukasyon.” The reasons for being “left behind” again and again; the issues that need to be resolved still before classes officially opens; the requirements and supports that need to be provided to address access, equity and inclusion in education of the MEVS.2020
Discussion on Public Investment in Literacy to Build Back BetterE-Net PhilippinesWebinarMoving towards building back better, it is important that literacy is integrated in the national COVID-19 response and recovery plans. Let us determine the initiatives of the government agencies in providing literacy programs especially to the most marginalized and disadvantaged sectors.
Invest in Literacy! Expand Life Opportunities! Reduce Poverty!
People's Assembly on SDG's and Human Rights: What now with CoViD?E-Net PhilippinesWebinarA livestream discussion on the 5th Anniversary of the SDG's sponsored by:
United Nations Civil Society Association (UNCSA) and
Global Call to Action Against Poverty (GCAP)
New Normal, Academic Year, A “Try or Cry” to the Students. Assessing the Government's Response on Bridging the Education Gap for the Better NormalE-Net PhilippinesWebinarWhile continuous learning for students and job security for teaching and non-teaching staff is important, policy coherence is just as pressing and critical in being a key element in resolving this crisis. The government must ensure to convene all stakeholders to craft concrete, pro-people, and effective policies that will solve all existing and anticipated challenges. The stakeholders will dictate the readiness of our educational system through massive consultations, and ultimately, participative policy-making.2020
Usapang Kababaihan, Kasarian, at EdukasyonE-Net PhilippinesWebinarEmpowering women and promoting gender equality is crucial to accelerating sustainable development. Ending all forms of gender discrimination is not only a basic human right, but it also has a multiplier effect across all other development areas. One of those crucial development areas is Education. In the Philippines, Gender issues remain a practice of ‘tokenism’ in schools and improvements still need to be done to ensure a safe and gender-fair learning environment.
The issue of unsafe learning environment and not-so-motivating teaching approaches contribute to dropout cases in schools for all learners. There is increasing violence among girls because of early marriages and teen pregnancy. Bullying LGBT because of low level of gender sensitivity among teachers and pupils/students is also a contributing factor to prevailing violence.
Come and join in this webinar on “Usapang Kababaihan, Kasarian, at Edukasyon”, to learn and unlearn various gender perspectives in coming up with gender-responsive and equity-based education engagements.
Making Tertiary Education a Foundation in Building Better NormalE-Net PhilippinesWebinarIn the tertiary education amid COVID-19, provision of scholarship that covers free tution and other fees in state and local universities and colleges and state-run technical-vocational institutions thru UNIFAST (Unified Student Financial Assistance System for Tertiary Education) was suspended that affected the learning continuity of students especially those from impoverished families.2020
PD IN SCHOOL AND HOME SETTING AND PARENT EDUCATION FOR A BETTER NEW NORMALE-Net PhilippinesWebinarThe COVID-19 pandemic changed the course of our daily lives and altered dramatically our system of living in full turn. This Webinar will discuss the use of positive discipline and parenting to build a "better new normal".
Together, let us create a participatory educational platform towards an effective child friendly and nurturing environment for all.
Domestic Resource Mobilization Through the Utilization of the Special Education Fund Discourse amid COVID-19 to Finance the Education of the Marginalized, Excluded and Vulnerable Learners for the Better NormalE-Net PhilippinesWebinarThe issue of access and equitable quality education remains a serious challenge especially to the marginalized, excluded and vulnerable learners including those in the Last Mile Schools. An important concern is the financing of their education.
E-Net Philippines in coordination with the Open Government Partnership CSO Education Cluster launched the Special Education Fund (SEF) Discourse last 13th of August. The webinar focused on the discussion of SEF as a source to fund the critical inputs in the implementation of the Learning Continuity Plan of the Department of Education to reach out these learners.
COUNT US IN: Community Youth Shoutout on Education and Life during the Pandemic in celebration of International Youth Day 2020E-Net PhilippinesWebinarThe marginalized youth comprised the biggest youth population in The Asia Pacific. From the Pacific to the mountains of Mongolia and from South East Asia to South Asia, young people from marginalized communities in 9 countries including PHILIPPINES have taken action. They have documented the stories of the community youth - their situations during the pandemic, what they did to cope with the challenges, and their recommendations to the government to ensure that they do not miss out on education and promote their well-being.2020
Psycho-social Management of Stress, Anxieties and Depression among Learners, Teachers and Parents amid COVID Pandemic and BeyondE-Net PhilippinesWebinarThe TEACHERS Inc. in partnership with E-Net Philippines launched the Thursday Webinar Series. This is the second in the Thursday Webinar series that deals on “Psycho-social Management of Stress, Anxieties and Depression among Learners, Teachers and Parents amid COVID Pandemic and Beyond.”
The COVID-19 pandemic has profound effects on the health and education of learners and teachers. The shift from face-to-face interactive learning to home schooling and other learning modalities in almost all of the areas, may further aggravate the anxieties and worrisome of many learners due to the adaptation to the new learning environment.
Objectives of the Webinar Series:
Illustrate/Present the psychosocial situation of learners, teachers and parents amid COVID-19 pandemic;
Discuss how to manage psychosocial issues of stress, anxieties and depression experienced by our learners, teachers and parents; and
Come up with programs that will strengthen the psychosocial support to the health and wellbeing of the learners, teachers as well as parents during the time of the pandemic and beyond.
SDGs and SDG4 –Towards a Better NormalE-Net PhilippinesWebinarThe world has been grappling with the COVID-19 pandemic and its devastating aftershocks. It has laid bare deep inequalities which are the result of the weaknesses of a global system that are addressed precisely in the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development or the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). In the 2030 Agenda, we have a holistic framework that brings the global economic, environmental, and development agenda together. Instead of sidelining the Goals, COVID-19 has made the SDGs even more relevant. The SDGs are not only useful for understanding COVID-19, they are also a valuable tool to guide the international and national recovery effort. The SDGs and particularly, SDG4 will be vital for a truly sustainable recovery, more inclusive economies, and stronger, more resilient societies.

This Webinar provides us a venue to look afresh at the SDGs as a framework for recovery towards a “better normal” and the particular role of SDG4 as a foundation to build back better.
Learning Modalities for a Better NormalE-Net PhilippinesWebinarAs a commitment in enhancing the educators’ and teachers’ capacity in ensuring the implementation of the Learning Continuity Plan at the ground level, TEACHERS INC and E-Net Philippines launched Thursday Webinar Series towards an improved quality of teaching and learning. The first episode of the Thursday Webinar Series for Educators’ and Teachers’ Professional Development was launched last July 30, 2020 via Zoom. The theme was Learning Modalities for a Better Normal. The topics and speakers were:

– Blended Learning in a Better Normal – Ms. Divina Lamban
– Google Classroom in a Virtual Class Setting – Engr. Jomer V. Catipon
Ituloy ang Aral, Learn as One: Infodrive on learning continuity for learners in the last mile schools.E-Net PhilippinesWebinarBecause of the COVID-19 pandemic, the learning environment is drastically altered and learning as a whole has been disturbed and challenged. But learning has to continue and learners must adapt well in the so-called “new normal”.

Learners in the last mile schools (LMS) have been especially challenged and disadvantaged even before and they are more so in the new learning setting that is being tested in response to the spread of coronavirus. It requires social distancing and the use of blended online-offline mode of learning delivery, which pose problems on the availability and access to needed equipment and services, and consequently affecting the quality of education. The condition of LMS learners is aggravated as they are deprived of opportunities to study and are likely to sacrifice their education because of poverty.

The Philippines’ Open Government Partnership (OGP) commitment on education for the LMS provides a platform for the Department of Education (DepEd) and partner civil society organizations (CSOs) to specifically address this concern. While the committed cooperation was originally crafted to provide inputs, such as classrooms, ICT and electricity, it could be redirected to respond to the need for learning continuity amidst the pandemic.
The DepEd and the CSOs, within and outside the OGP platform, cannot turn a blind eye on the urgent needs of the LMS learners. All available information and assistance should be afforded them to enable them to catch up and not be left behind. After all, education is not a privilege, but a human and constitutional right of all citizens, which is not diminished even in the time of pandemic.
Continuity of Education and Lifelong Learning in the New NormalE-Net PhilippinesWebinarAside from its devastating impact on the economy and people’s livelihoods, the rapid spread of COVID-19 has brought enormous consequences on education too. Schools in basic education were forced to close in early March just before the 4th grading exam periods. Major universities in the NCR suspended and later on ended classes within 3 weeks of the end of the 2 nd semester or moving towards midterm for those which opened in June-July. To limit the disruption of education, schools and higher education institutions (HEIs) adopted ‘home-schooling situations’ and some, a shift to online learning. But while online learning seems to be convenient at a time when face-to-face interaction is highly discouraged, even DepEd Sec. Leonor Briones expressed concern that “this will only be effective when feasible” citing lack of infrastructure and internet access in many areas.

This situation gives us a glimpse of how continuity of education and learning will be more challenging for learners, teachers and schools when schools start to open again. While education agencies and schools have plans for emergency management for natural disasters, COVID19 impact may well be one of the longest sustained disruptions the education sector will face. Taking into consideration the existing education gaps especially in terms of access, equity and resources, we may have arrived at this point unprepared.

Without a vaccine still, risk of a resurgence of the disease will continue. Despite this, learning cannot stop. Containment and other mitigation measures like “social distancing” will still be in place in schools, in workplaces, in communities. This will be the “new normal”. The education system will have to be prepared and ready (though in a short period) to plan, adapt and flexibly adjust plans to keep education running in this “new normal” situation. Innovations will be much needed while ensuring that these new shifts and approaches will not widen existing equity gaps.